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意大利再度启用17世纪防疫“酒窗”

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2020年08月20日

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As 16th-century Florentines dropped like flies to the plague, survivors drowned their fears in wine, passed to them through small windows which are enjoying a renaissance during the coronavirus era.

由于瘟疫盛行,16世纪的佛罗伦萨人纷纷病倒,幸存者借酒消除恐惧,商家通过小窗户把酒出售给顾客。而在新冠疫情时期,这种售卖方式再次兴起。

The small "wine windows" can be seen dotted around the Tuscan capital next to the grand entrances of sumptuous noble palaces, where wealthy families used to sell alcohol directly to thirsty customers, passing flasks through to eager hands.

在托斯卡纳区首府佛罗伦萨,豪华的贵族宫殿的宏伟入口旁随处可见小小的“酒窗”。过去,富裕的家庭在这里直接向口渴的顾客出售酒,把小酒瓶递给渴望喝上一杯的人。

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Over time, the apertures, just 30 centimetres high and 20 centimetres wide, fell into disuse.

随着时间的推移,只有30厘米高、20厘米宽的“酒窗”就不再使用了。

But the Covid-19 pandemic has seen their resurgence, with bars using them to serve ice-cold cocktails like Aperol Spritz, gelato or coffee.

但新冠疫情使“酒窗”再度启用,酒吧用它来出售冰镇阿佩罗开胃鸡尾酒、意式冰淇淋或咖啡。

They offer a way for establishments hit hard by the lockdown to attract customers while adhering to social distancing rules.

它们为受到封锁重创的商家提供了一种既能吸引顾客,又能遵守社交距离规则的售卖方式。

The windows pre-date the plague. They were created by the Medici family, after it returned to power in 1532 following the fall of the Florentine Republic, according to scholar Massimo Casprini, who has written a book about them.

这些“酒窗”在疫情之前就存在了。据学者马西莫·卡斯普林尼所著,梅第奇家族在佛罗伦萨共和国垮台后,于1532年重新掌权,之后发明了“酒窗”。

The famed political dynasty "wanted to promote agriculture, so encouraged large Florentine landowners to invest in olive groves and vineyards... while giving them tax breaks to sell their production directly in town," he told AFP.

他告诉法新社说,这个著名的政治王朝“想要发展农业,所以鼓励佛罗伦萨的大地主投资橄榄园和葡萄园……同时给予他们在城里直接销售产品的税收优惠。

The landowners were only allowed to sell wine they had produced themselves, and only 1.4 litres at a time.

地主只能销售自产葡萄酒,且一次只能销售1.4升。

But it got rid of the middleman.

但这种方式摆脱了中间商。

"Common people could buy wine at a more reasonable price than from the shopkeepers," Casprini said.

卡斯普林尼说:“比起从店里购买,普通人可以用更合理的价格买到葡萄酒。”

That could translate into big savings, for "at the time wine consumption was enormous," he said, with a grin.

这可以省下一大笔钱,因为“当时的葡萄酒消费量很大,”他笑着说。

It also had another unexpected benefit: ensuring social distancing.

“酒窗”还有另一个意想不到的好处:保证社交距离。

"The window was closed with a wooden panel, the customer would knock with the knocker, and the wine merchant inside would take the empty bottle and fill it," Casprini said.

卡斯普林尼说:“窗户是用木板关上的,顾客会用门环敲门,里面的酒商会把空瓶子装满。”

"That meant no direct contact," said the 78-year old.

这位78岁的老人说:“这意味着没有直接接触。”

To date, some 267 of the wine windows have been rediscovered in Tuscany, with 149 of them in the centre of Florence.

到目前为止,托斯卡纳区重新启用了大约267个“酒窗”,其中149个位于佛罗伦萨市中心。

"There were many more," Casprini added.

卡斯普林尼补充道:“其实还有更多。”

"Almost every landowner had one, but many of them were destroyed, particularly during the Second World War bombings".

“几乎每个地主都有一个,但其中许多被毁,特别是在第二次世界大战轰炸期间”。

Others have been walled up, but can still be spotted by their distinctive frames in grey sandstone, or stone dug from quarries in the nearby picturesque town of Fiesole.

还有一些已经被墙围起来了,但仍然可以从灰色砂岩或从附近风景如画的菲耶索尔镇采石场挖出的石头上看到它们独特的外形。

An association called "Le buchette del vino" ("Wine Holes") now catalogues the windows, placing plaques below each one.

如今,一个名为“酒洞”的协会将“酒窗”分类,并在每个“酒窗”下方放置匾额。

Despite being protected by law, Casprini said that three windows "have already disappeared" since his first census in 2005.

卡斯普林尼说,尽管受到法律保护,但是自从2005年他的首次调查以来,已有三个酒窗“消失了”。

Those left are used as everything from quirky hatches in bars or cafes, to shop displays and even small Catholic shrines.

剩下的那些用途各异,酒吧或咖啡馆里古怪的门,商店展示窗,甚至是小型天主教神龛。


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